The Most Gruesome Parasites – Neglected Tropical Diseases – NTDs

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In the year 1014, Byzantine Emperor Basil the Second defeated the Bulgarian army and captured 15 thousand prisoners. He could've killed them, but he had a different idea. He wanted to weaken his opponents for decades to come. So he ordered that 99 out of every 100 prisoners be blinded. The 100th to be spared one eye to guide the rest back home, forcing their communities to care for them for the rest of their lives. Today, humans are subject to an attack just as cynical as this by a league of supervillians called NTDs. One in seven humans on the planet suffers from one or more NTDs, more than the entire population of Europe. They do unimaginable damage, by crippling countless people, they destroy billions of dollars in income each year, weaken communities, and slow progress. What are these monsters straight out of a horror movie, seeking to wreak havoc on our species? NTDs are caused by a vast range of different parasites such as worms, amoebae, bacteria, or viruses. The symptoms they cause are just as diverse and truly the stuff of nightmares. Some, like hookworms, compete with children's brains and bodies for nutrition, stunting growth, and impairing intelligence. Some NTDs cause blindness as the result of awful eye infections. Other parasites confine patients to bed for months, and damage internal organs, often shortening lifespans drastically. Yet others cause horrible disfigurements that lead to social stigma, a life lived in shame, and unemployment. There are also a few that are incredibly agonizing. They cause continuous itching, or horrible pain. In fact, let's introduce you to one of them: Dracun culiasis. If you accidentally drink water infected by it, you won't notice anything for a year. Until one day, you suddenly see a blister on your leg. The worm breaks out of the skin to release new larvae. The only way to remove it is to slowly pull it out of your leg, centimeter by centimeter, over the course of several weeks, because Dracun culiasis is now up to a meter long. We can all agree that we should kill such parasites with fire. That's why we declared war on them, pleading to eradicate most of them by 2020, and we tried doing that very hard. In 1985, there were 3.5 million cases of Dracun culiasis all over the world. In 2015, there were 22. We killed 99.999% of these little monsters. It will be the first parasite we eradicate for good very soon. So, even if they don't generate big headlines like Ebola did, actually, amazing things have happened when it comes to NTDs. All NTDs have one thing in common: they preferably attack humans who live in the most isolated communities, and who are least able to defend themselves. There are villages that are 500 kilometers from the nearest health facility, with no roads anywhere. So even if a remedy is available, what if it means going on an odyssey to get it to the patients? This called for an attack using brute force. To stamp out NTDs once and for all, what's possibly the biggest medical program in human history was launched, unmatched in scale. Organizations from all fields are working together right now to eliminate ten of these NTDs forever. Ironically, every NTD is, in fact, preventable or treatable. But most of them can only be controlled by giving medicine to every person in all high-risk areas. That means millions and millions of doses of medicine, often for several NTDs at a time, over the course of years, in countries where there is no infrastructure. Governments and health organizations just couldn't do that by themselves. Here, humanity got an opportunity to show off what the industrialized production of medicine can achieve. The pharma industry stepped in to distribute the necessary drugs for free, and promised to keep doing it until those ten diseases are gone. By 2020, nearly $18 billion worth of drugs will have been distributed, the largest drug donation the world has ever seen. They also helped make sure the drugs actually get to where they're needed. In 2015 alone, these treatments reached over 850 million people, more than the population of the EU and the US combined. Bad things happening generates headlines. Hundreds of millions of people overcoming extremely destructive diseases, in an unprecedented act of cooperation doesn't. Stories like this one are not told often enough. Good things happen all the time, moving humanity closer to a future with no suffering. So, if you or one of your friends are in need of uplifting news, share this video with them. We, as a species, really can do great things with no other motivation than to help each other. It's good to remember that from time to time. This video was made possible in part by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and your support on If you want to help us make more videos, you can do so here. If you're disappointed by the lack of disturbing facts in this video, here's a playlist about the end of everything!
Channel: Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
Views: 6,782,969
Rating: 4.9558401 out of 5
Keywords: ntd, ntds, neglected tropical disease, disease, ebola, pharma, funny, 60s horror movies, parasite
Channel Id: undefined
Length: 5min 42sec (342 seconds)
Published: Wed Nov 30 2016
Reddit Comments

Huh, this was untypically uplifting for a kurzgesagt video. I already heard that the Gates' foundation (correction: Jimmy Carter's efforts) nearly eradicated this leg-worm, but didn't know there were 9 other parasites on the hitlist as well.

👍︎︎ 1871 👤︎︎ u/Johanson69 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

Wow, pretty uplifting message from Kurzgesagt this time!

"If you're dissapointed by the lack of disturbing facts in this video, here's a playlist about the end of everything"


👍︎︎ 268 👤︎︎ u/EpicNetwork 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

I was a bit confused why this video didn't actually mention which diseases the NTDs are, so if you are curious, I made this list of parasites and their respective diseases, according to the World Health Organization's website. Many of these are not taught in detail in medical school because they are so uncommon in the US.

  • Ascaris lumbricoides (ascariasis) - Aka the "giant roundworm", the MOST common parasite infecting an incredible 1 BILLION people worldwide (don't google, it's horrifying)
  • Ancylostoma and necator (hookworm disease) - Mentioned in the video, very common (nearly a billion infections combined) and can cause stunted growth in children
  • Trypanosoma Cruzi (Chagas Disease) - A single-cell parasite transmitted by insect bites, very common in South America
  • Dracunculus medinensis (Dracunculiasis) - A nematode worm, almost extinct, hurray!
  • Echinococcus (echninococcosis) - A tapeworm that causes liver disease, carried by sheep
  • Schistosomes (schistosomiasis) - Water-borne flukes (flatworms), very common worldwide
  • Wuchereria Bancrofti (lymphatic filariasis) - Fly-borne nematodes that causes the infamous Elephantiasis disease
  • Clonorchis and Opisthorchis (liver flukes) - Food-borne flatworms
  • Taenia solium (cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis) - Food-borne tapeworms, can be life-threatening
  • Onchocerca (River Blindness) - Roundworm transmitted by fly-bites, can cause blindness when the worm migrates to the eye
  • Strongyloides stercoralis - Threadworms in the soil that punch through the skin and cause life-long infection (don't walk barefoot in the wilderness)

There are more obviously (didn't even mention the common parasites in developed countries, or the bacterial or viral tropical diseases!), but I think I might have ruined enough appetites. Good news: there are very effective treatments for worms, they don't tend to be as hard to treat as bacteria or viruses because animals don't evolve drug-resistance as quickly.

👍︎︎ 520 👤︎︎ u/sharplydressedman 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

TBH the opening story about King Basil II blinding all those Bulgars was the more interesting takeaway from this video for me.

👍︎︎ 104 👤︎︎ u/CMAuGaming 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

Really like how Kurzgesagt explains unsavory topics like this through animation – easily queasy people like me can learn about NTDs or Ebola or measles and not be grossed out by highly graphic images.

The occasionally dark humor helps too.

👍︎︎ 98 👤︎︎ u/gulabjamunyaar 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

Even though the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored this video, I'm surprised they didn't mention the Carter Center's role in eradication of dracunculiasis (the Guinea Worm). They've been leading the charge since 1986.

👍︎︎ 185 👤︎︎ u/Robpye 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

Another fantastic video from Kœrtszßeseaghöaste

👍︎︎ 74 👤︎︎ u/a1phanumerical 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

A little shade thrown at Twitter at the end there- the close-up centering on the twitter bird as he talks about how its important to share uplifting news on how humans help each other.

👍︎︎ 22 👤︎︎ u/itsnickk 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies

Now I want to learn more about Byzantine.

👍︎︎ 40 👤︎︎ u/[deleted] 📅︎︎ Nov 30 2016 🗫︎ replies
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