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Ahoy! You...tube. [laughs] There's going to be some word play today. I hope you got your noses strapped on A few days ago I put out a tweet where I gave some facts about words that sound the same, but have different meanings, like "blue" and "blew". "Blue" the colour, and "blew" the past tense of blow. A few people responded with, "yea yea yea, they're called homonyms." Fair enough. "Blue" and "blew" are homonyms. ....... or are they? There's a reason I didn't call them homonyms, and that reason will be made clear in today's episode. Let's look at three ways two or more words can be similar. They can have the same meaning, they can be spelled the same, or they can be sound the same when spoken. If two words mean the same thing, but are pronounced differently and have different spellings, well then they're just.... synonyms. Synonyms, we've all heard of synonyms before. An example of synonyms would be "Buy" and "Purchase". These two words have nearly the same meaning, I'll admit that they probably can have different connotations, like maybe "Buy" is more casual and "Purchase" is more fancy. *posh voice* "Oh you bought that, but i purchased it hehe because I'm an adult" Any who, they nearly have the same meaning so they are synonyms. For those of you who love little fun facts It often comes up, is there a synonym for synonym? Not really, but there is a slightly outdated word that isn't used very often. It looks like a poe-cil-onym, but really this is pronounced pe-cil-onym. pecilonym (pronounced) poecilonym (spelling) It's a good spelling bee word because it's not spelt the way it sounds. Poecilonym and poecilonym means various names, various names for the same thing... synonyms. Poecilonym is a synonym for synonym there you go, fun fact of the day *slot machine winning sound* But we're not done. What if two or more words mean the same thing and are spelled the same but aren't pronounced alike? Now we don't really have a word for what those are called, but lets come up with some examples. "The" and "The" (pronounced "Thee") They are two ways of pronouncing English's only definite article, so they mean the same thing however increasingly in American-English especially "Thee" is being used for emphasis, which tentatively gives it a different meaning. So "The" and "Thee" might not be like a totally perfect example all the time sometimes just accent differences can matter, like how I might say "about" and a Canadian might say "aboot" right, they're spelled the same and they mean the same thing but they sound differently. Ok what about things that mean the same thing and sound the same but are spelled differently, well these are just spelling variants For instance, um "Barbecue" spelled like "bar-ba-cue" with a "C", and "Barbeque" spelled like this with a "Q" Ooh ah, "Barbecue" is not spelt like that it's spelt with an "E" This is just me words and all, you're welcome Using a "C" or a "Q" doesn't effect the meaning or the sound of the word it's just a spelling difference There are two words that also fit into this category that I'm particularly fond of "Diarrhoea" and "Diarrhea" There's a fantastic uh mnemonic or acronym that you can use to remember how to spell diarrhoea in the UK fashion The mnemonic is, Dash In A Real Rush Hurry or Else Accident! Diarrhoea. Now because I'm in the US we don't always use that "O" so I just remember the mnemonic and then I erase the "O" Diarrhea Perfect, diarrhea is a great example of what might fit into this intersection in our Venn diagram Ok, now lets look in the very middle of our Venn diagram. If two words are spelled the same, are pronounced the same, and have the same meaning. Well then they are just identical words an example would be "soup" and "soup" both sound the same, spelled the same, and refer to the soup Not so fun, so lets keep moving on. What we have left are these two circles where words either are spelled the same look the same written down or they sound the same to the ear when spoken so the differences are between the way they sound, "Phone" And the way they look, "Graph" Ok So lets think about words that sound the same but have different meanings and are not spelled the same Um oh that would be something like what I tweeted "Blue" and "Blew" What distinguishes them is that they look (graph) different (hetero) so they are heterogrpahs Now what about words that sound different and mean different things but are spelled the same Examples of these would be things like "tear" and "tear" If you "tear" apart something I love you might cause me to shed a "tear" Uh another example is, "Record and "Record" We can "record" what I'm doing right now, if we do so what we will have made is a "record" of what I did What distinguishes them is that they have different (hetero) sounds (phones) they are heterophones Ok so we have these two differences, heterographs look different, heterophones sound different In the middle of these two we have words that look the same and sound the same but have different meanings like "Bank" "Bank" or "Skate" "Skate" A bank can either be where money is stored or it can be the kind of sloping land near a river, the bank of a river you wouldn't go get a lone from a river bank, haha and you wouldn't go fish in a financial bank Skate, "Skate" means to either slide along but it's also the name of a kind of flat fish Those words have a very special name, if you want to be really precise Only words that fall within this part of the Venn diagram are homonyms, same name Because they sound the same and they're spelled the same but we can go into even more detail because both of these homonyms "Bank" and "Bank", and "Skate" and "Skate" aren't equal, one is a true homonym and the other is polysemous heh yea polysemous means many meanings if two different meanings of a word share the same origin like the mouth of a river and the mouth of a human then they are polysemous, but if two words do not have a shared origin but still sound and look the alike well then their homonymity is quite special, it's true There are two other categories we can draw here one involves words that are spelled the same and that's not only include heterophones but also homonyms so I'm going to draw an outline that includes heterophones and homonyms Ok now this little piece of the Venn diagram, these are words that look the same. They are what are called Homographs Oh my gosh I'm running out of room, homographs well anyways you guys, you get it you guys are smart. Homogrpahs Notice that I'm not including words that have the same meaning, they're pretty much just variations of the same word and they don't get a special name Homographs look the same, so "Bank" "Bank", "Skate" "Skate", "Tear" "Tear", "Record" "Record" they all look the same But there's another category which also includes homonyms as well as Heterographs These words sound the same so as you can probably imagine they are called homophones I don't know how well the silver shows up, but both heterographs and homonyms sound the same, they have the same sound "Skate" "Skate", "Blue" "Blew" other examples of heterographs would be like "To" "Too" and "Two" Now often when people talk about homonyms what they're really talking about are homophones and that's fine which definition of homonym you prefer to use or want to use at a given moment is totally up to you, I don't care as long as it's clear what you mean that's perfect, I'm a language descriptionist I think language is how we use it I don't want to prescribe rules of usage onto people but finally we should talk about. Visemes Visemes are words that have different meanings, are spelled differently, and sound different but yet have something very special in common they look the same on the lips Visemes are words that are difficult to distinguish when lip reading because the way your mouth moves and the tongue and the inside of your mouth are similar some of my favorite examples are "Pet", "Bell", and "Men" in fact we're going to turn the audio off and I'm going to say three of them in some order and I want you in the comments below tell me what order you think I said them in (Not sure what order he did them in) There you go. Alright finally learn more I've got two videos to recommend that are down in the description one, is about the McGurk Effect, if you've never seen the McGurk effect which ties lip movements into sound and the audio illusion that emerges you got to check it out Also Tom 7 who I've talked about in a Vsauce 1 video in the past has a great video out about a thing he's invented called "Anagraphs". Anagraphs are words that don't share letters they share letter pieces, it's a fantastic video that's linked below check that one out. While we're talking about nyms names for words uh I want to talk about somethings that aren't going to show up on this chart um the opposite of a synonym is an antonym, words that have opposite meanings, like hot and cold Boring right? What I'm fascinated by are autoantonyms, a word that can also mean the opposite of one of it's meanings an example would be the word "Off", off can both mean to activate and deactivate, as in my alarm went off so I turned it off "Left" is another good autoanonym left can mean gone like he left but left can also mean he didn't leave he's left There are also autoanonymic phrases like "Wind up" wind up can mean get ready like a wind up for a pitch but it can also mean we gotta stop "We gotta wind up", we're out of time and as always Thanks for watching
Channel: D!NG
Views: 1,856,084
Rating: 4.9608727 out of 5
Keywords: lut, vsauce, vsauce2, vsauce3, michael stevens, kevin lieber, jake roper, Homonyms, mcgurk, language, education, heterographs, homographs, heterophones, homophones, ding, d!ng, dingsauce
Id: gTKeB8BnzPY
Channel Id: undefined
Length: 11min 27sec (687 seconds)
Published: Wed Mar 21 2018
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Hey Vsauce!

👍︎︎ 2 👤︎︎ u/tradisws 📅︎︎ Mar 23 2018 🗫︎ replies
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